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Kūpaʻa Herbicide

ʻO ke kūpaʻa Herbicide e pili ana i ka hiki ke hoʻoilina ʻia o kahi biotype o kahi nāhelehele e ola i kahi noi lāʻau make i hiki ai i ka lāhui kumu. ʻO kahi biotype kahi hui o nā mea kanu i loko o kahi ʻano i loaʻa nā ʻano olaola (e like me ke kūʻē ʻana i kahi lāʻau make) ʻaʻole maʻamau i ka heluna kanaka holoʻokoʻa.

ʻO ka kūpaʻa Herbicide ka pilikia nui i mua o nā mea kanu o North Carolina. Ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa, ma luna o 100 biotypes o nā nāhelehele ʻike ʻia e kūpaʻa i hoʻokahi a i ʻole nā ​​mea hoʻohana lāʻau ʻino. Ma North Carolina, loaʻa iā mākou i kēia manawa he biotype o ka goosegrass kūʻē i nā dinitroaniline herbicides (Prowl, Sonalan, a me Treflan), he biotype o ka cocklebur kūʻē iā MSMA a me DSMA, a me kahi biotype o ka ryegrass makahiki kūʻē iā Hoelon.

A hiki i kēia manawa, ʻaʻohe hopohopo e pili ana i ka ulu ʻana o ke kūpaʻa lāʻau make ma North Carolina. ʻOiai he ʻekolu kā mākou ʻano me nā biotypes kūʻē i kekahi mau lāʻau lāʻau, ua wehewehe maʻalahi ʻia ka hanana ʻana o kēia mau biotypes e ka ulu ʻana i nā mea kanu i kahi monoculture. ʻAʻole pono ka hopohopo e pili ana i ke kūʻē ʻana i nā mea ulu e hoʻohuli ana i nā mea kanu. Akā, ua loli ke kūlana i nā makahiki i hala aku nei ma muli o ka hoʻomohala a hoʻohana ākea ʻana o kekahi mau lāʻau make i like ka ʻano o ka hana (Papa 15 a me 16). ʻO ke ʻano o ka hana e pili ana i ke kaʻina kikoʻī ma o kahi mea make i ka lāʻau make e pepehi ai i kahi mea kanu maʻalahi. I kēia lā, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia nā lāʻau herbicides i ka ʻano hana like o ka hana ma kekahi mau mea kanu i ulu aʻe i ka huli. ʻO kahi hopohopo nui loa kēlā mau lāʻau make e kāohi i ka ʻōnaehana ʻōnaehana ALS (Papa 15). ʻO kekahi o kā mākou mau lāʻau make i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia he ALS mea kāohi. Hoʻohui ʻia, nui o nā mea kanu lāʻau make e manaʻo ʻia e hoʻopaʻa inoa ʻia i loko o nā makahiki he 5 e hiki mai ana he mau mea hōʻoki ALS. Ma ke ʻano he hui, loaʻa i nā mea kāohi ALS nā helu he nui e like me ka mea e maʻalahi ai i ka ulu ʻana o ke kūpaʻa o nā mea kanu.

Hoʻohana ʻia nā lāʻau Herbicides i ka hana ʻana i nā mea kanu no ka mea ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi a ʻoi aku paha o ka ʻoi aku o ka maikaʻi ma mua o nā kumu o ka kaohi lāʻau. Inā kū ʻo ke kūʻē ʻana i kahi lāʻau make a i ʻole ʻohana o nā lāʻau herbicides, ʻaʻohe paha he mau herbicides kūpono. ʻO kahi laʻana, ʻaʻohe ʻano lāʻau make ʻē aʻe i kēia manawa e kāohi i ka ryegrass kūʻē Hoelon. No laila, pono ke nānā aku i nā lāʻau make i nā kumuwaiwai e pale ʻia. Pono mākou e hoʻohana i nā lāʻau make i ke ʻano e pale i ka ulu ʻana o ke kūpaʻa.

ʻO ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana pehea e ulu ai ke kūʻē i mea nui i ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana pehea e pale ai i ka pale. ʻElua mau pono e pono ai no ka ulu lāʻau kūpale kūpale. ʻO ka mea mua, pono ke loaʻa nā mauhelehele ʻokoʻa i nā ʻāpana e hāʻawi ana i ke kūʻē ʻana i ka lāhui ʻōiwi. ʻO ka lua, ke kaomi koho i hopena ʻia mai ka hoʻohana nui ʻana i kahi lāʻau make a kahi e kūʻē ʻole ai kēia mau kānaka kūʻē i ka lehulehu. ʻO nā kānaka kūpaʻa, inā aia, he hapa haʻahaʻa loa o ka heluna kanaka āpau. ʻO ka maʻamau, aia nā poʻe kūpale i nā alapine mai 1 ma 100,000 a 1 i 100 miliona. Inā hoʻohana mau ʻia ka lāʻau make a mea lāʻau paha me ka ʻano hana like o ka hana, pepehi ʻia nā mea maʻalahi akā make ʻole nā ​​mea kūʻē a hoʻohua hua. Inā hoʻomau ke kaomi koho no kekahi mau hanauna, e hoʻopau ka biotype kūʻē i kahi pākēneka kiʻekiʻe o ka lehulehu. I kēlā manawa, ʻaʻole hiki ke kiʻi hou ʻia ka kaohi nāhelehele me ka lāʻau make a i ʻole nā ​​lāʻau make.

ʻO ka mea nui hoʻokahi o ka hoʻolālā hoʻokele e pale i ka ulu ʻana o ke kūpaʻa lāʻau ʻo ia ke kaʻapo ʻana o nā lāʻau make a ʻokoʻa nā ʻano hana. Mai hoʻopili i nā lāʻau make i ka mahele kūlana kiʻekiʻe i nā mea kanu ʻelua ʻelua. Pēlā nō, mai hana i nā noi hou aku o kēia mau lāʻau herbicides ʻoi loa i ka hua like. Mai hoʻopili i nā lāʻau make i ka mahele kaulike kaulike i ʻoi aku ma mua o ʻelua mau mea kanu. Pono e koho i nā lāʻau make i ka mahele haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa ke kāohi lākou i ka paʻakikī Inā koho pono ʻia nā ʻāpana o ka pahu wai a i ʻole nā ​​kaʻina hana maʻamau, hiki i kēia hoʻolālā ke kōkua nui i ka hoʻopaneʻe ʻana i ka evolution evolution. Minamina, ʻo ka nui o nā koi o ka hoʻohuihui tank a i ʻole nā ​​kaʻina hana e hōʻalo ai i ke kūʻē ʻole i hoʻokō ʻia me nā hoʻohui i hoʻohana mau ʻia. I mea e maikaʻi loa ai i ka pale ʻana i ka evolution evolution, hoʻohana ʻia nā lāʻau herbicides ʻelua i ka hopena a i ʻole i loko o nā pahu wai i like ke ʻano o ka kaohi a pono ke hoʻomau i ka hoʻomau.

I ka nui e hiki ai, e hoʻopili i nā hana kaohi nonchemical e like me ka mahi ʻana i loko o ka papahana hoʻokele weuweu. Mālama i nā moʻolelo maikaʻi o ka hoʻohana lāʻau lāʻau i kēlā me kēia kahua no ka wā e hiki mai ana.

Ke ʻimi nei i nā nāhelehele kūpaʻa pauwau. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā kūleʻa kaohi mauʻu ʻaʻole ma muli o ke kūpaʻa lāʻau. Ma mua o ka manaʻo ʻana he pale nāhelehele i ke ola ʻana i kahi noi lāʻau make, hoʻopau i nā kumu ʻē aʻe āpau o ka mālama maikaʻi ʻole. ʻO nā kumu kūpono o ka holo pono ʻole ʻana o ka nāhelehele e komo pū me nā mea e like me ka hoʻohana hewa ʻana (e like me ka lawa ʻole o ka helu, ka uhi maikaʻi ʻole, ka hoʻopili maikaʻi ʻole ʻana, a me ka ʻole o kahi adjuvant) nā kūlana maikaʻi ʻole no ka ʻoihana lāʻau make maikaʻi; ka wā kūpono ʻole o ka noi lāʻau make (i ke ʻano, ka hoʻopili ʻana i nā lāʻau make ma hope o ka nui o nā nāhelehele no ka kaohi maikaʻi); a me nā nāhelehele e ulu aʻe ma hope o ka noi ʻana o kahi lāʻau make pōkole.

Ke hoʻopau ʻia nā kumu kumu ʻē aʻe āpau o ka mālama maikaʻi ʻole ʻana, hiki i ka mea aʻe ke hōʻike i ke kū ʻana o kahi biotype lāʻau kūpaʻa hānai. (2) ua hoʻopili ʻia nā mea kanu olakino o nā lāhui i waena o nā mea kanu o nā ʻano like i pepehi ʻia; (3) ʻo ka laha ʻole i kāohi ʻia ka mea maʻalahi i ka lāʻau make i nīnau ʻia; a (4) he moʻolelo ka māla o ka hoʻohana nui ʻana i ka lāʻau make i nīnau a i ʻole nā ​​lāʻau make me ka ʻano hana like. Inā kānalua ʻia ke kūʻē ʻana, e hoʻopau koke i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka lāʻau make i nīnau ʻia a me nā lāʻau ʻino e like me ka ʻano o ka hana.

 


Ka manawa Post: Mei-07-2021